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{{Card
==Card #12: Carbon Sinks==
|number=12
<center>
|version=adult
|title=Carbon Sinks
}}


== Explanation ==
[[File:En-en_adult_card_12_front.png|400px]]
 
Half of the CO<sub>2</sub> we emit every year is absorbed by carbon sinks:
 
- ¼ by vegetation via photosynthesis
 
- ¼ by the oceans
 
The remaining half stays in the atmosphere.
 
</center>
 
==Explanation==
The original IPCC graph represents both CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and carbon sinks. The Climate Fresk has chosen to split it in two to show where CO<sub>2</sub> comes from and where it goes. This is why the two cards are symmetrical: every year, the CO<sub>2</sub> emitted by humankind has to go somewhere. Any CO<sub>2</sub> that is not absorbed by the other carbon sinks remains in the atmosphere.
The original IPCC graph represents both CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and carbon sinks. The Climate Fresk has chosen to split it in two to show where CO<sub>2</sub> comes from and where it goes. This is why the two cards are symmetrical: every year, the CO<sub>2</sub> emitted by humankind has to go somewhere. Any CO<sub>2</sub> that is not absorbed by the other carbon sinks remains in the atmosphere.


The text at the back of the card gives approximate absorption rates. The more detailed percentages are:
The text at the back of the card gives approximate absorption rates. The more detailed percentages are:


* 27.9% for the ocean
*27.9% for the ocean
* 28.8% for photosynthesis<ref>[https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/WG1AR5+SummaryVolume+FINAL+FRENCH.pdf Page 51 of IPCC's fifth technical summary report (French)]</ref>.
*28.8% for photosynthesis<ref>[https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/WG1AR5+SummaryVolume+FINAL+FRENCH.pdf Page 51 of IPCC's fifth technical summary report (French)]</ref>.


== Facilitation tips ==
==Facilitation tips ==
This card is to be mirrored with the [[En-en adult card 7 co2 emissions|CO<sub>2</sub> emissions]] card. To help the players figure this out, we can show them the card and ask "Can you see anything weird about this card?". Very often they notice that the legend is written upside-down. We can then tell them that it is a puzzle to be solved and that the answer is on the table. If the players do not figure it out, they can be given some clues:
This card is to be mirrored with the [[En-en adult card 7 co2 emissions|CO<sub>2</sub> emissions]] card. To help the players figure this out, we can show them the card and ask "Can you see anything weird about this card?". Very often they notice that the legend is written upside-down. We can then tell them that it is a puzzle to be solved and that the answer is on the table. If the players do not figure it out, they can be given some clues:


* What is the type of representation? A graph
*What is the type of representation? A graph
* What type of graph? A "filled" curve
*What type of graph? A "filled" curve
* What is the legend? The same as for CO<sub>2</sub> emissions.
*What is the legend? The same as for CO<sub>2</sub> emissions.
==Correction==
==Correction ==
===Causes===
===Causes===
*[[En-en_adult_card_7_co2_emissions|CO2 Emissions]]
*[[En-en_adult_card_7_co2_emissions|CO2 Emissions]]
* [[En-en_adult_card_42_weakening_gulf_stream|Weakening Gulf Stream]]
*[[En-en_adult_card_42_weakening_gulf_stream|Weakening Gulf Stream]]


=== Consequences ===
===Consequences===
*[[En-en_adult_card_11_concentration_of_co2|Concentration of CO2]]
*[[En-en_adult_card_11_concentration_of_co2|Concentration of CO2]]
*[[En-en_adult_card_24_ocean_acidification|Ocean Acidification]]
*[[En-en_adult_card_24_ocean_acidification|Ocean Acidification]]


== Other possible links ==
== Other possible links==


=== Other causes ===
===Other causes===
*[[En-en adult card 6 deforestation|Deforestation]] Players often think that deforestation reduces carbon sinks. In reality, the impact is minimal because deforested areas represent a very small part of the total forest area. On the other hand, the CO<sub>2</sub> emitted is very important.
* [[En-en adult card 6 deforestation|Deforestation]] Players often think that deforestation reduces carbon sinks. In reality, the impact is minimal because deforested areas represent a very small part of the total forest area. On the other hand, the CO<sub>2</sub> emitted is very important.
*[[En-en adult card 8 agriculture|Agriculture]] It doesn't matter if this link is not made, but it is true that agriculture can improve storage capacity through photosynthesis. This is the 0.4% principle (if we increased the soil's capacity to sequester carbon by even 0.4%, we would have a significant impact on CO<sub>2</sub>).
*[[En-en adult card 8 agriculture|Agriculture]] It doesn't matter if this link is not made, but it is true that agriculture can improve storage capacity through photosynthesis. This is the 0.4% principle (if we increased the soil's capacity to sequester carbon by even 0.4%, we would have a significant impact on CO<sub>2</sub>).


=== Other consequences ===
===Other consequences===
*[[En-en adult card 32 decline agricultural yields|Decline in agricultural yields]] Studies have shown that yields increase with increased CO<sub>2</sub>, but that the nutrient content of vegetables is reduced as a result, because trace elements are not more abundant when yields increase.
*[[En-en adult card 32 decline agricultural yields|Decline in agricultural yields]] Studies have shown that yields increase with increased CO<sub>2</sub>, but that the nutrient content of vegetables is reduced as a result, because trace elements are not more abundant when yields increase.


== Wrong links==
==Wrong links==
===Wrong consequences===
===Wrong consequences===
*[[En-en adult card 14 energy budget|Energy budget]] The idea here is not to say there is no link between these two cards, but to make sure they are not mixed up. The carbon sinks card tells us where the carbon goes. The energy budget card tells us where the excess energy goes. Both distribute something, but not the same thing. To make it even more confusing, the atmosphere and the ocean are present in both.  
*[[En-en adult card 14 energy budget|Energy budget]] The idea here is not to say there is no link between these two cards, but to make sure they are not mixed up. The carbon sinks card tells us where the carbon goes. The energy budget card tells us where the excess energy goes. Both distribute something, but not the same thing. To make it even more confusing, the atmosphere and the ocean are present in both.


==To go further==
==To go further==
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It can be added that the atmospheric concentration has increased sharply in years with an El Niño phenomenon because it makes it difficult for vegetation to absorb carbon<ref>[https://www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget/19/files/GCP_CarbonBudget_2019.pdf#page=48 The Global Carbon Project, 2019]</ref>.
It can be added that the atmospheric concentration has increased sharply in years with an El Niño phenomenon because it makes it difficult for vegetation to absorb carbon<ref>[https://www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget/19/files/GCP_CarbonBudget_2019.pdf#page=48 The Global Carbon Project, 2019]</ref>.


===Carbon sinks capacity===
===Carbon sinks capacity ===
[https://jancovici.com/changement-climatique/gaz-a-effet-de-serre-et-cycle-du-carbone/les-puits-de-carbone-ne-vont-ils-pas-absorber-le-surplus-de-co2/ Jean-Marc Jancovici’s web site - Won't "carbon sinks" absorb excess CO<sub>2</sub>? (French)]
[https://jancovici.com/changement-climatique/gaz-a-effet-de-serre-et-cycle-du-carbone/les-puits-de-carbone-ne-vont-ils-pas-absorber-le-surplus-de-co2/ Jean-Marc Jancovici’s web site - Won't "carbon sinks" absorb excess CO<sub>2</sub>? (French)]


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