Difference between revisions of "Guide"

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m (Disruption of the Water Cycle : in English !)
(Change from Famine to Starvation)
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=== Consequences ===
=== Consequences ===
<section begin=Cardadult27Cons />* [[En-en_adult_card_37_famines|Famines]]<section end=Cardadult27Cons />
<section begin=Cardadult27Cons />* [[En-en_adult_card_37_starvation|Starvation]]<section end=Cardadult27Cons />


== Card #28 : Vectors of Disease ==
== Card #28 : Vectors of Disease ==
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=== Consequences ===
=== Consequences ===
<section begin=Cardadult32Cons />* [[En-en_adult_card_37_famines|Famines]]
<section begin=Cardadult32Cons />* [[En-en_adult_card_37_starvation|Starvation]]
* [[En-en_adult_card_39_climate_refugees|Climate Refugees]]<section end=Cardadult32Cons />
* [[En-en_adult_card_39_climate_refugees|Climate Refugees]]<section end=Cardadult32Cons />


Line 571: Line 571:
<section begin=Cardadult36Cons />* [[En-en_adult_card_35_forest_fires|Forest Fires]]<section end=Cardadult36Cons />
<section begin=Cardadult36Cons />* [[En-en_adult_card_35_forest_fires|Forest Fires]]<section end=Cardadult36Cons />


== Card #37 : Famines ==
== Card #37 : Starvation ==
=== Description ===
=== Description ===
<section begin=Cardadult37Desc />
<section begin=Cardadult37Desc />
Famines can be caused by lower agricultural yields and by the reduction of marine biodiversity.
Starvation can be caused by lower agricultural yields and by the reduction of marine biodiversity.
<section end=Cardadult37Desc />
<section end=Cardadult37Desc />


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=== Description ===
=== Description ===
<section begin=Cardadult38Desc />
<section begin=Cardadult38Desc />
Famines, displacement of disease vectors, heat waves and armed conflicts can affect human health.
Starvation, displacement of disease vectors, heat waves and armed conflicts can affect human health.
<section end=Cardadult38Desc />
<section end=Cardadult38Desc />


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<section begin=Cardadult38Caus />* [[En-en_adult_card_28_vectors of_disease|Vectors of Disease]]
<section begin=Cardadult38Caus />* [[En-en_adult_card_28_vectors of_disease|Vectors of Disease]]
* [[En-en_adult_card_31_freshwater_resources|Freshwater Resources]]
* [[En-en_adult_card_31_freshwater_resources|Freshwater Resources]]
* [[En-en_adult_card_37_famines|Famines]]<section end=Cardadult38Caus />
* [[En-en_adult_card_37_starvation|Starvation]]<section end=Cardadult38Caus />


=== Consequences ===
=== Consequences ===
Line 606: Line 606:


=== Causes ===
=== Causes ===
<section begin=Cardadult39Caus />* [[En-en_adult_card_37_famines|Famines]]
<section begin=Cardadult39Caus />* [[En-en_adult_card_37_starvation|Starvation]]
* [[En-en_adult_card_40_armed_conflicts|Armed Conflicts]]<section end=Cardadult39Caus />
* [[En-en_adult_card_40_armed_conflicts|Armed Conflicts]]<section end=Cardadult39Caus />



Revision as of 11:03, 30 July 2021

This page is not intended to be modified, and is based directly on the self-study document.

Adult game

Card #1 : Human activities

Description

This is where it all begins...

Causes

None

Consequences


Card #2 : Industry

Description

Industry uses fossil fuels and electricity.
It accounts for 40% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Causes

Consequences

Card #3 : Building Usage

Description

The building sector (housing and commercial use) uses fossil fuels and electricity.
It accounts for 20% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.


Causes

Consequences


Card #4 : Transportation

Description

The transportation sector is highly dependent on oil.
It accounts for 15% of greenhouse gas emissions.


Causes

Consequences

Card #5 : Fossil Fuels

Description

Fossil fuels are coal, oil, and natural gas.
They are used mainly in buildings, transportation, and industry.
They emit CO2 when burned.


Causes

Consequences

Card #6 : Deforestation

Description

Deforestation consists in cutting or burning trees beyond the ability to restore the forest.
80% of the deforestation is related to agriculture.


Causes

Consequences

Card #7 : CO2 Emissions

Description

CO2 (or carbon dioxide) is the first anthropogenic (ie linked to human activity) greenhouse gas in terms of emissions.
These emissions come from our use of fossil fuels and deforestation.


Causes

Consequences

Card #8 : Agriculture

Description

Agriculture does not emit a lot of CO2, but is responsible for the emission of large quantities of methane
(from cows and rice paddies) and of nitrous oxide (from fertilizers).
In all, agriculture amounts for 25% of GHGs if we include induced deforestation.


Causes

Consequences

Card #9 : Other GHGs

Description

CO2 is not the only greenhouse gas (GHG). Among others are methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2O),
two gases mainly emitted by agricultural activities.


Causes


Consequences


Card #10 : Aerosols

Description

Nothing to do with aerosol spray cans.
Aerosols are a type of local pollution that comes from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.
They are bad for human health and they contribute negatively to radiative forcing (they cool the climate).


Causes


Consequences

Card #11 : Concentration of CO2

Description

About half of our CO2 emissions are captured by natural carbon sinks.
The other half remains in the atmosphere ; the concentration of CO2 in the air has increased
from 280 to 410 ppm (parts per million) in 150 years.


Causes


Consequences


Card #12 : Carbon Sinks

Description

Half of the CO2 we emit every year is absorbed by carbon sinks :
- 1/4 by the vegetation (through photosynthesis)
- 1/4 by the ocean
The remaining half (1/2) stays in the atmosphere.


Causes


Consequences

Card #13 : Additional Greenhouse Effect

Description

The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon – and incidentally, the first of the GHGs is water vapor.
Without greenhouse effect, the planet would be 33°C colder and life as we know it would not be possible.
But CO2 and other GHGs related to human activity increase the natural greenhouse effect and unbalance the climate.


Causes


Consequences

Card #14 : Energy Budget

Description

This graph explains where the energy accumulated on Earth due to radiative forcing goes :
it warms up the ocean, melts ice, dissipates into the ground, and warms up the atmosphere.


Causes


Consequences


Card #15 : Radiative Forcing

Description

Radiative forcing represents the difference (caused by humans) between the energy that arrives on Earth each second and the energy that is released.
In the 5 th assessment report of IPCC, it is rated at (Watt per square meter).


Causes

Consequences

Card #16 : Melting of Glaciers

Description

Almost all glaciers have lost mass. Hundreds of them have already disappeared.
These glaciers play a regulating role in the provision of fresh water.


Causes

Consequences


Card #17 : Increase in Water Temperature

Description

Oceans absorb 93% of the energy accumulated on Earth.
Their temperature has therefore increased, especially in the upper layers.
The water expands as it warms up.


Causes

Consequences


Card #18 : Melting of Sea Ice

Description

Sea ice melting does not make the sea level rise (just as a melting ice cube does not make a glass overflow).
However, when it melts, it gives way to the much darker sea, which goes on to absorb more sun rays than white ice.


Causes

Consequences

  • No main consequences

Card #19 : Melting of Ice Sheets

Description

Continental glaciers (or ice sheets) are in Greenland and Antarctica.
If they melt completely, they will cause a rise in ocean levels of 7 meters for Greenland and 54 meters for Antarctica.
During the last ice age, ice sheets were so much larger that the sea level was 120 m lower than today.


Causes

Consequences

Card #20 : Disruption of the Water Cycle

Description

If the oceans and the atmosphere are hotter, the evaporation that takes place at the ocean surface increases.
This means more rain clouds and more rain. If this happens on land, then the soils dries out.


Causes


Consequences


Card #21 : Temperature Rise

Description

Here we are referring to the average temperature of air above the ground on Earth.
It has increased by 1°C since 1900. Depending on the scenarios, the rise in temperature could reach 2°C to 5°C by 2100.
At the end of the last ice age years, the average temperature was only 5°C lower than today... and deglaciation took 10,000 years!


Causes

Consequences


Card #22 : Sea Level Rise

Description

Since 1900, sea level has risen by 20 cm.
Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of ocean waters, and the melting of glaciers and continental glaciers.


Causes

Consequences

Card #23 : Hindered calcification process

Description

When the pH drops, the formation of calcium carbonate (and more specifically, of calcified shells) becomes more difficult.


Causes

Consequences

Card #24 : Ocean Acidification

Description

When CO2 dissolves into the ocean, it turns into acid ions (H2CO3 and HCO3).
The effect of this transformation is ocean acidification (the pH decreases).


Causes

Consequences

Card #25 : Terrestrial Biodiversity

Description

Animals and plants are affected by the changes in temperature and the disruption of the water cycle.
They may migrate, become extinct or, more rarely, proliferate.


Causes

Consequences

Card #26 : River Flooding

Description

The disruption of the water cycle can bring more water or less water. More water can lead to river flooding.
If the soil has been dried out by a drought, it makes things worse because the water runs off.


Causes


Consequences

Card #27 : Marine Biodiversity

Description

Pteropods and coccolithophores are at the base of the ocean food chain.
Therefore, if they disappear, all marine biodiversity is threatened. The warming of ocean waters also threatens marine biodiversity.


Causes

Consequences

Card #28 : Vectors of Disease

Description

With global warming, animals migrate. Some of them carry diseases and can reach areas where the population is not immunized against these diseases.


Causes

Consequences

Card #29 : Pteropods and Coccolithophores

Description

Pteropods are a kind of zooplankton and coccolithophores a kind of phytoplankton. These organisms have a calcified shell.


Causes

Consequences

Card #30 : Droughts

Description

The disruption of the water cycle can bring more water or less water. Less water is a drought. Droughts are likely to become more frequent in the future.


Causes

Consequences

Card #31 : Freshwater Resources

Description

Freshwater resources are affected by changes in rainfall and by the disappearance of glaciers that regulate the flow of rivers.


Causes

Consequences

Card #32 : Decline in Agricultural Yields

Description

Food production can be affected by temperature, droughts, extreme weather events, floods and marine submersion (e.g. the Nile Delta).


Causes

Consequences

Card #33 : Marine Submersion

Description

Cyclones and weather disturbances bring wind (therefore waves) and low pressure conditions.
1 hectopascal less means a 1 cm sea level rise.
Therefore cyclones can cause marine submersions (or coastal flooding), amplified by the sea level rise already caused by global warming.


Causes

Consequences

Card #34 : Cyclones

Description

Cyclones use energy from warm waters at the ocean surface. Because of global warming, they are becoming stronger.


Causes

Consequences

Card #35 : Forest Fires

Description

Forest fires start more easily during droughts and heat waves.


Causes

Consequences

No direct consequences.

Card #36 : Heat Waves

Description

A manifestation of temperature increase is the multiplication of heat waves.


Causes

Consequences

Card #37 : Starvation

Description

Starvation can be caused by lower agricultural yields and by the reduction of marine biodiversity.


Causes

Consequences

Card #38 : Human Health

Description

Starvation, displacement of disease vectors, heat waves and armed conflicts can affect human health.


Causes

Consequences

Card #39 : Climate Refugees

Description

Imagine that you live in a place that has been miraculously spared by climate change. Several billions of human beings might want to share this space with you.


Causes

Consequences

Card #40 : Armed Conflicts

Description

This is how we shouldn't let it end...


Causes

Consequences

Card #41 : Permafrost

Description

Permafrost is permanently frozen ground.
Permafrost thawing leads to the decomposition of organic matter previously frozen underground, a phenomenon that releases methane and CO2 into the atmosphere.
Beyond +2°C, it is almost certain this phenomenon will accelerate and make the climate spiral out of control.


Causes

Consequences

Card #42 : Methane Hydrates

Description

Methane hydrates (or methane clathrates) are a form of ice on the ocean floor, along continental slopes, that traps methane molecules. They can become unstable above +2°C.

Causes

Consequences