This is the last phase of the Fresk. It follows the pitch and should take at least 45 minutes. It focusses on emotions and solutions.
This phase plays out in two parts:
- A first part for players to explore their emotions
- A second part about solutions.
The emotions part
Because climate change is so deeply tragic, it is important to put words on whatever feelings it generates and not keep them inside. Without obliging any player to speak about their feelings, here are some ways to support the discussion:
- Asking the players to form pairs and practise active listening pairs
- Asking the players, one after the other, to say one word, then to explain why they have chosen it
- Some emotions: anger, fear, disgust, joy, sadness, surprise, anticipation, anxiety, love, depression, trust, pride, shame, envy...
- Asking the players to choose a character on Pip Wilson's blob tree test or an emotion on the wheel of emotions.
The solutions part
This part is to emphasise the solutions that the players can propose, and to discuss how change can be brought. Generally it goes as follows:
- The players bring up ideas of individual solutions
- These are challenged by the facilitator or by a player
- The players discuss solutions that have more impact than individual solutions.
The role of the facilitator
Creating a safe space
The facilitator must make sure that all the players feel at ease, whether they wish to talk to about their emotions or not. This can be done explicitly by sharing rules (showing kindness, letting everyone speak...) or using techniques of non-violent communication.
Centring the debate
When we talk about climate change, we often veer off into other subjects like the hole in the ozone layer, plastic pollutions or pesticides. Although these issues are important, they are not directly linked to climate change, and it can be necessary to bring the players back to our subject by asking them to concentrate on solutions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Players often state incorrect numbers. If the order of magnitude is right and it doesn't skew the debate, a correction can be brought in the post-Fresk email. But if the numbers are so far off that they have a negative impact on the discussion, it is better to correct them on the spot.
Our society makes private people believe that individual action is necessary and sufficient to resolve these environmental crises. This is not the case, and the facilitator should make that clear. For example, it can be said that "heroic" individual behaviour only achieves 50% of the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions required, and 25% in the case of “realistic” behaviour. Questions that may call into question individual action may be:
- What do we do if other people refuse to change their behaviour by themselves?
- Only 51% of French people think that we must "significantly modify our lifestyles to prevent climate change".
How can we feel OK?
A recurring question at the end of the Fresk is "How can we not sink into eco-anxiety knowing what we know now?". There are several ways to answer it. The players have just learned that our civilisation is self-destroying and taking all living things with it, and it is therefore normal to feel overwhelmed. It may be a good idea to introduce the players to Kübler-Ross's grief curve and to explain that it is quite normal to feel sadness, anger, fear, and that this is a phase.
Another way to feel better is to turn around our understanding of what prompts us to act. Instead of saying to yourself "I am taking action to lessen my impact on the world", you can say to yourself "I am taking action to prepare for a more frugal and resilient world". It must also be said that the best way to feel better is to get involved in associations, to act individually, or to implement any other solutions proposed during the debate.
Exemple de domaine de solution
In the rare case that the players cannot think of any solutions, the facilitator can ask them to take another look at the four types of human activity highlighted by the Fresk and to suggest some individual suggestions linked to each one:
- Industry: buying less consumer products, digital sobriety, repairing things instead of buying new, the five Rs (Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose, Recycle)
- Building usage: heating less, living in a smaller house/flat, insulating your home, changing your heating system
- Transportation: stopping flying, avoiding driving, using the train for long trips, cycling for short trips
- Agriculture: avoiding animal products, preferring locally produced foods (NB the type of product has a much greater influence than its provenance).
Once the workshop is over, it is important to send an email to the players. The purpose of this email is to:
- Remind them what was said during the debate
- Clarify some points if necessary
- Provide other resources for the players to learn more
- Invite the players to become facilitators
- Provide the players with the means to contact the facilitator in the future.
- Carbone 4, Faire sa part
- ADEME, Représentations sociales du changement climatique : 20 ème vague, question 11b
- Our World in Data, Food : Greenhouse gas emissions across the supply chain