Difference between revisions of "En-en adult card 10 aerosols"

From Climate Fresk
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m (Structure adaptation for Memo)
m (Structure adaptation for Memo)
Line 8: Line 8:
Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, generally ranging in size from a few nanometres to 10 micrometres and which remain in the atmosphere for at least several hours. Aerosols can be of natural or human origin (through [[En-en adult card 4 transportation|transportation]] or [[En-en adult card 2 industry|industry]]).  They can affect the climate in a variety of ways: [[En-en adult card 15 radiative forcing#Cooling effects|directly]], by scattering or absorbing radiation, and [[En-en adult card 15 radiative forcing#Cooling effects|indirectly]] by acting as condensation nuclei of clouds or glaciogenic cores, by modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds.
Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, generally ranging in size from a few nanometres to 10 micrometres and which remain in the atmosphere for at least several hours. Aerosols can be of natural or human origin (through [[En-en adult card 4 transportation|transportation]] or [[En-en adult card 2 industry|industry]]).  They can affect the climate in a variety of ways: [[En-en adult card 15 radiative forcing#Cooling effects|directly]], by scattering or absorbing radiation, and [[En-en adult card 15 radiative forcing#Cooling effects|indirectly]] by acting as condensation nuclei of clouds or glaciogenic cores, by modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds.


== To go further ==
== Correction==


=== Origins of anthropogenic aerosols ===
===Causes===
Aerosols are a form of local pollution caused by the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. When we burn fossil fuels, a perfect and complete combustion produces only CO<sub>2</sub> and water vapour. However, the hydrocarbons we burn are not pure and the combustion is not complete. Therefore, polluting gases such as NOx or carbon monoxide and aerosols such as black carbon (soot) or hydrogen sulphide are also emitted.
 
=== Natural Aerosols ===
If clouds already existed before the industrial era, it is because aerosols exist in their natural state. They are for example microscopic grains of sand, salt crystals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as microorganisms blown by the wind from the leaves of trees. The micro-droplets of water that make up clouds can only form on a condensation core such as an aerosol.
 
=== Uncertainty related to the calculation of the influence of aerosols ===
Although aerosols are thought to cool the climate on average, their total contribution is the result of warming and cooling effects with great uncertainty. The sum of the two is therefore highly subject to uncertainty. The Futura Science article [https://www.futura-sciences.com/planete/dossiers/climatologie-tant-incertitudes-previsions-climatiques-638/ Why so many uncertainties in climate predictions?] (in French) provides a good understanding of the origin of these uncertainties.
==Correction==
 
===Causes ===


*[[En-en_adult_card_2_industry|Industry]]
*[[En-en_adult_card_2_industry|Industry]]
Line 27: Line 17:
===Consequences===
===Consequences===


*[[En-en_adult_card_15_radiative_forcing|Radiative forcing]] Ce qui est expliqué au dos de la carte 10 et dans la nouvelle version de la carte 15 (> oct 2018) : Les aérosols refroidissent le climat. Voir les fiches thématiques sur les aérosols et sur le forçage radiatif.
*[[En-en_adult_card_15_radiative_forcing|Radiative forcing]] Aerosols cool down the climate.  
*[[En-en_adult_card_38_human_health|Human health]] Although aerosols are not alone in the "fine particle" category, every year 391,000 people in EU countries die from air pollution<ref>[https://www.eea.europa.eu/fr/highlights/la-pollution-atmospherique-reste-trop Air pollution remains too high throughout Europe (French)]</ref>, and it causes 1.1 million premature deaths in India and China<ref>[https://www.sciencesetavenir.fr/nature-environnement/l-inde-rattrape-la-chine-en-nombre-de-morts-de-la-pollution_110560 India catches up with China in the number of deaths from pollution (French)]</ref>.
*[[En-en_adult_card_38_human_health|Human health]] Although aerosols are not alone in the "fine particle" category, every year 391,000 people in EU countries die from air pollution<ref>[https://www.eea.europa.eu/fr/highlights/la-pollution-atmospherique-reste-trop Air pollution remains too high throughout Europe (French)]</ref>, and it causes 1.1 million premature deaths in India and China<ref>[https://www.sciencesetavenir.fr/nature-environnement/l-inde-rattrape-la-chine-en-nombre-de-morts-de-la-pollution_110560 India catches up with China in the number of deaths from pollution (French)]</ref>.


==Other possible links==
==Other possible links==


===Other causes===
=== Other causes===
[[En-en adult card 3 building|Building usage]] Buildings emit few aerosols directly. The only significant emissions are chimney fires. In Chamonix, 85% of the fine particles present in the atmosphere come from wood heating<ref>[https://www.lemonde.fr/pollution/article/2016/12/08/dans-la-vallee-de-chamonix-le-chauffage-au-bois-est-le-principal-coupable-de-la-pollution_5045636_1652666.html In the Chamonix valley, wood heating is the main culprit of pollution (French).]</ref>.
[[En-en adult card 3 building|Building usage]] Buildings emit few aerosols directly. The only significant emissions are chimney fires. In Chamonix, 85% of the fine particles present in the atmosphere come from wood heating<ref>[https://www.lemonde.fr/pollution/article/2016/12/08/dans-la-vallee-de-chamonix-le-chauffage-au-bois-est-le-principal-coupable-de-la-pollution_5045636_1652666.html In the Chamonix valley, wood heating is the main culprit of pollution (French).]</ref>.


Line 39: Line 29:


[[En-en adult card 13 additional greenhouse effect|Card 13]] can be used to explain this: Aerosols mainly play on the orange arrows (they increase the size of the "Reflection" arrow, while the additional greenhouse effect plays on the red arrows (it increases the size of the "Greenhouse Effect" arrow which returns to the earth).
[[En-en adult card 13 additional greenhouse effect|Card 13]] can be used to explain this: Aerosols mainly play on the orange arrows (they increase the size of the "Reflection" arrow, while the additional greenhouse effect plays on the red arrows (it increases the size of the "Greenhouse Effect" arrow which returns to the earth).
==To go further==
===Origins of anthropogenic aerosols===
Aerosols are a form of local pollution caused by the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. When we burn fossil fuels, a perfect and complete combustion produces only CO<sub>2</sub> and water vapour. However, the hydrocarbons we burn are not pure and the combustion is not complete. Therefore, polluting gases such as NOx or carbon monoxide and aerosols such as black carbon (soot) or hydrogen sulphide are also emitted.
===Natural Aerosols===
If clouds already existed before the industrial era, it is because aerosols exist in their natural state. They are for example microscopic grains of sand, salt crystals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as microorganisms blown by the wind from the leaves of trees. The micro-droplets of water that make up clouds can only form on a condensation core such as an aerosol.
===Uncertainty related to the calculation of the influence of aerosols===
Although aerosols are thought to cool the climate on average, their total contribution is the result of warming and cooling effects with great uncertainty. The sum of the two is therefore highly subject to uncertainty. The Futura Science article [https://www.futura-sciences.com/planete/dossiers/climatologie-tant-incertitudes-previsions-climatiques-638/ Why so many uncertainties in climate predictions?] (in French) provides a good understanding of the origin of these uncertainties.


==References==
==References==

Revision as of 10:52, 4 April 2021

Card #10: Aerosols

Causes Consequences
Front of the card "Aerosols"


Nothing to do with aerosol spray cans.
Aerosols are a type of local pollution that comes from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.
They are bad for human health and they contribute negatively to radiative forcing (they cool the climate).

Definitions

Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, generally ranging in size from a few nanometres to 10 micrometres and which remain in the atmosphere for at least several hours. Aerosols can be of natural or human origin (through transportation or industry). They can affect the climate in a variety of ways: directly, by scattering or absorbing radiation, and indirectly by acting as condensation nuclei of clouds or glaciogenic cores, by modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds.

Correction

Causes

Consequences

  • Radiative forcing Aerosols cool down the climate.
  • Human health Although aerosols are not alone in the "fine particle" category, every year 391,000 people in EU countries die from air pollution[1], and it causes 1.1 million premature deaths in India and China[2].

Other possible links

Other causes

Building usage Buildings emit few aerosols directly. The only significant emissions are chimney fires. In Chamonix, 85% of the fine particles present in the atmosphere come from wood heating[3].

Facilitation advice

This card can be removed most of the time, unless the players are likely to understand it, have the time and the facilitator has a good grasp of the subject.

Card 13 can be used to explain this: Aerosols mainly play on the orange arrows (they increase the size of the "Reflection" arrow, while the additional greenhouse effect plays on the red arrows (it increases the size of the "Greenhouse Effect" arrow which returns to the earth).

To go further

Origins of anthropogenic aerosols

Aerosols are a form of local pollution caused by the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. When we burn fossil fuels, a perfect and complete combustion produces only CO2 and water vapour. However, the hydrocarbons we burn are not pure and the combustion is not complete. Therefore, polluting gases such as NOx or carbon monoxide and aerosols such as black carbon (soot) or hydrogen sulphide are also emitted.

Natural Aerosols

If clouds already existed before the industrial era, it is because aerosols exist in their natural state. They are for example microscopic grains of sand, salt crystals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as microorganisms blown by the wind from the leaves of trees. The micro-droplets of water that make up clouds can only form on a condensation core such as an aerosol.

Uncertainty related to the calculation of the influence of aerosols

Although aerosols are thought to cool the climate on average, their total contribution is the result of warming and cooling effects with great uncertainty. The sum of the two is therefore highly subject to uncertainty. The Futura Science article Why so many uncertainties in climate predictions? (in French) provides a good understanding of the origin of these uncertainties.

References